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乐施会:全球十大富豪疫情期间财富翻倍

乐施会:全球十大富豪疫情期间财富翻倍

David Meyer 2022-01-20
在新冠疫情期间,一些亿万富翁的财富增长格外明显,即使在富豪圈里也很突出。

总部位于英国的慈善机构乐施会(Oxfam)最新发布了全球不平等报告,报告显示,在新冠疫情期间,全球最富有的10个人的财富总和增长了一倍多,从7000亿美元增加到了1.5万亿美元。报告指出,“如果把十大亿万富翁的财富换成美元大钞堆成山,富翁们坐在钞票山顶上,距离月球差不多只剩一半路。”

每年在达沃斯举办的世界经济论坛(World Economic Forum)召开时,乐施会都会发布一份不平等报告。受新冠疫情影响,2022年达沃斯论坛延迟到1月17日开始。今年的报告对比了最富有亿万富翁的巨额收益与99%的人遭受的损失。

对比结果显示,在新冠疫情期间,一些亿万富翁的财富增长格外明显,即使在富豪圈里也很突出。特斯拉(Tesla)和SpaceX的首席执行官埃隆·马斯克的财富增长了约1000%,目前约为2700亿美元。谷歌(Google)的联合创始人拉里·佩奇和谢尔盖·布林的财富都增长了125%。

乐施会表示,总的来说,在新冠疫情持续的两年里,全球2755位亿万富翁比过去14年繁荣时期更加富有。

迪斯尼家族的纪录片导演、一直主张征收财富税的阿比盖尔·迪斯尼在报告前言中写道:“新冠病毒刚开始爆发时,我和很多天真的人们认为,也许,只能说也许,之前赤裸裸暴露的极不公正和残忍的结构可以唤醒人们,让人有能量重新思考资源分配。然而现实正好相反。”

乐施会在研究中强调了南半球妇女和儿童的经济困境,称南半球妇女儿童财富加起来还比不上252名最富有男性的财产。报告指出:“收入最高的1%人群掌握的全球财富是收入最低的50%人群的近20倍。”报告还补充道:“即使收入最高的10个人总财富损失99.999%,每个人仍然比世界上99%的人更富有。”

乐施会的调查方法值得关注,因为近年来有些方法遭到了批评:最富有的1%人口和“最底层的50%人口”之间的比较是基于瑞士信贷(Credit Suisse)的数据,数据将债务考虑在内,意味着如果富裕的年轻人背负大量学生贷款,会视为相对贫穷。乐施会此前曾经为这种分析方法辩护,称对解决不平等问题影响不大。

除此之外,超级富豪的统计数据来自《福布斯》亿万富豪排行榜(Forbes Billionaires List,本次全球不公平报告引用了2021年11月底的数据),并与2020年3月同一批人的财富进行了比较,同时考虑了通胀因素,而底层99%人群的财富状况恶化的数据来自世界银行(World Bank)。

乐施会敦促各国政府应对新冠疫情的同时,解决经济战略中的不平等问题,并采取以下措施:一次性的团结税;对资本和财富征收累进税;全民医疗和收入保障;为应对气候危机提供资金;投资女性权利;以及放弃知识产权规则,帮助贫穷国家,为人民接种疫苗。

报告称:“为适应21世纪,各国政府必须围绕建设更平等社会制定经济战略。这意味着争取经济更平等,以及追求性别和种族平等,而且必须有明确的、有时限和可衡量的目标支撑。”(财富中文网)

译者:冯丰

总部位于英国的慈善机构乐施会(Oxfam)最新发布了全球不平等报告,报告显示,在新冠疫情期间,全球最富有的10个人的财富总和增长了一倍多,从7000亿美元增加到了1.5万亿美元。报告指出,“如果把十大亿万富翁的财富换成美元大钞堆成山,富翁们坐在钞票山顶上,距离月球差不多只剩一半路。”

每年在达沃斯举办的世界经济论坛(World Economic Forum)召开时,乐施会都会发布一份不平等报告。受新冠疫情影响,2022年达沃斯论坛延迟到1月17日开始。今年的报告对比了最富有亿万富翁的巨额收益与99%的人遭受的损失。

对比结果显示,在新冠疫情期间,一些亿万富翁的财富增长格外明显,即使在富豪圈里也很突出。特斯拉(Tesla)和SpaceX的首席执行官埃隆·马斯克的财富增长了约1000%,目前约为2700亿美元。谷歌(Google)的联合创始人拉里·佩奇和谢尔盖·布林的财富都增长了125%。

乐施会表示,总的来说,在新冠疫情持续的两年里,全球2755位亿万富翁比过去14年繁荣时期更加富有。

迪斯尼家族的纪录片导演、一直主张征收财富税的阿比盖尔·迪斯尼在报告前言中写道:“新冠病毒刚开始爆发时,我和很多天真的人们认为,也许,只能说也许,之前赤裸裸暴露的极不公正和残忍的结构可以唤醒人们,让人有能量重新思考资源分配。然而现实正好相反。”

乐施会在研究中强调了南半球妇女和儿童的经济困境,称南半球妇女儿童财富加起来还比不上252名最富有男性的财产。报告指出:“收入最高的1%人群掌握的全球财富是收入最低的50%人群的近20倍。”报告还补充道:“即使收入最高的10个人总财富损失99.999%,每个人仍然比世界上99%的人更富有。”

乐施会的调查方法值得关注,因为近年来有些方法遭到了批评:最富有的1%人口和“最底层的50%人口”之间的比较是基于瑞士信贷(Credit Suisse)的数据,数据将债务考虑在内,意味着如果富裕的年轻人背负大量学生贷款,会视为相对贫穷。乐施会此前曾经为这种分析方法辩护,称对解决不平等问题影响不大。

除此之外,超级富豪的统计数据来自《福布斯》亿万富豪排行榜(Forbes Billionaires List,本次全球不公平报告引用了2021年11月底的数据),并与2020年3月同一批人的财富进行了比较,同时考虑了通胀因素,而底层99%人群的财富状况恶化的数据来自世界银行(World Bank)。

乐施会敦促各国政府应对新冠疫情的同时,解决经济战略中的不平等问题,并采取以下措施:一次性的团结税;对资本和财富征收累进税;全民医疗和收入保障;为应对气候危机提供资金;投资女性权利;以及放弃知识产权规则,帮助贫穷国家,为人民接种疫苗。

报告称:“为适应21世纪,各国政府必须围绕建设更平等社会制定经济战略。这意味着争取经济更平等,以及追求性别和种族平等,而且必须有明确的、有时限和可衡量的目标支撑。”(财富中文网)

译者:冯丰

The world's richest 10 men have collectively seen their wealth more than double from $700 billion to $1.5 trillion during the pandemic, according to the latest inequality report from Oxfam, which notes that "if the top 10 billionaires sat on top of their combined wealth piled up in U.S. dollar bills, they would reach almost halfway to the moon."

It is by now traditional for the U.K.-based charity to issue an inequality report at the time of the World Economic Forum's Davos gathering—which began on January 17, virtually, thanks to COVID. This year's report contrasts the very richest billionaires' vast gains with the economic losses suffered by 99% of humanity.

Some billionaires have had a particularly good pandemic, even by the standards of their peers. The wealth of Tesla and SpaceX CEO Elon Musk increased by around 1,000%, to a current value of around $270 billion. Google co-founder Larry Page and Sergey Brin both enjoyed 125% boosts to their fortunes.

Overall, the world's 2,755 billionaires got richer during the nearly-two-year pandemic than they did in the last 14 (largely prosperous) years, Oxfam said.

"When Covid first hit I, and a lot of other naifs, thought that maybe, just maybe, the way our structures had been so starkly revealed as unjust and downright cruel would wake us up and give us new energy to think differently about the way resources are distributed," wrote Abigail Disney—a documentarian scion of the Disney family who has long advocated for wealth taxes—in the report's foreword. "In fact, the opposite has happened."

The study highlights the economic disadvantages of women and children in the global south, saying their collective wealth is less than that individually enjoyed by the richest 252 men. "The top 1% have captured nearly 20 times more of global wealth than the bottom 50% of humanity," the report states, adding that "if the 10 richest men lost 99.999% of their combined wealth, each of them would still be richer than 99% of the world."

It's important to note Oxfam's methodology here, because part of it has come in for criticism over the years: the comparison between the top 1% and the "bottom 50% of humanity" is based on Credit Suisse data that takes debt into account, meaning a well-heeled young individual with a pile of student debt is counted as being relatively poor. Oxfam has previously defended this way of looking at the situation, saying it makes very little difference to the point it is making about inequality.

Apart from that, the super-rich statistics come from the Forbes Billionaires List—in this case cited as at the end of last November, and compared with the same people's wealth in March 2020 while taking inflation into account—and the data about the bottom 99% being worse off comes from the World Bank.

Oxfam urged governments to address inequality in their economic strategies as they respond to the pandemic, with measures such as: one-off solidarity taxes; progressive taxes on capital and wealth; universal health care and income security; funding for addressing the climate crisis; investment in women's rights; and waiving intellectual property rules to help poor countries vaccinate their people.

"As an approach fit for the 21st century, governments must center their economic strategies around greater equality. This means far greater economic equality—alongside goals to pursue gender and racial equality—and it must be supported by explicit, timebound, and measurable milestones," the report said.

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